The Raw Materials of our Products
Talc, also named magnesium-silicate-hydrate is white to grey in color, crystallizes in a monoclinic crystal system and is the softest mineral worldwide, with a hardness of 1 on the Mohs scale. It has a specific gravity of 2.6 to 2.8 g/cm3. Pure talc is an inert mineral i.e. insoluble in acids and has a platelet -like structure. The mineralogy of talc is unique and differs from deposit to deposit. A further well known modification of talc is called soapstone that feels distinctly soapy or greasy. Talc is also often seen and admired in the form of sculptured objects.
Dolomite is a double salt which is formed from calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, ideally occurring in the mole proportion 1:1. Mohs hardness is around 3.5 to 4.0 and specific gravity is approx. 2.9 g/cm3. The color varies from white, through crème to light grey. Dolomite has a considerably higher acid resistance than calcite.
Clinoptiolite – Zeolite
Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate minerals, which occur in numerous modifications in nature. The general composition of this group is Mx/n [(AlO2)x(SiO2)]*zH2O. The specific gravity is usually around 2.2 to 2.5 g/cm3. Zeolites belong the group of tectosilicates occurring in the form of [SiO4] and [AlO4] tetrahedrons in a polycyclic ring compound. The canal-like connections can show reversible hydration, ion exchange, and molecular sieve properties. Zeolites have an extraordinary high inner surface due to the meso porous structure.
Titanium dioxide is the most popular, widely and most frequently used thus therefore making it the most successful white pigment ever. It is hard to believe that such a brilliantly white pigment powder is typically obtained (in 47% of cases of world production) from a black mineral, ilmenite, FeTiO3, after undergoing countless process steps using the sulphate or chloride method. Titanium dioxide has several mineral modifications, with the forms rutile and anatase being the most well-known exponents. The average density of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is about 4.2 g / cm³. In addition, TiO2 has a very high chemical resistance, which means that the application areas are virtually limitless. What are also known are its photocatalytic properties, e.g. Unpleasant odors and, in general theoretically all the organic substances, can convert into carbon dioxide and water, using UV light, and other different molecules.
The outstanding optical effect of the titanium dioxide pigment, typically used in the form of very fine, as uniformly large particles (~200-400 nanometers), is achieved, however, primarily by the high refractive index, with a refractive index (optical density, with the symbol, n ) of 2.70 versus air (n = 1.0), which in turn causes the high difference to the binder matrix with the refractive index of n = 1.5 and thus the optimum interaction (scattering of the light). This optimally achieves all the requirements of a white pigment, with regard to covering and brightening, brightness and color tint.
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC)
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is purified by precipitation obtaining Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC): by calcination of limestone, hydration of the obtained lime and carbonation, different types of PCC are obtained, being used as functional filler for paper, coatings, ink, sealants, plastics, rubber, pharma&food, etc.
The production process is adapted to the customer needs and the properties of PCC are modified:
– Ultrafine spherical and rhombohedral particles coated superficially used in sealants for rheology modification purposes.
– Rhombohedral and prismatic particles of micrometric size suitable for the paper industry to provide whiteness and opacity, and modify paper porosity.
– Prismatic and needle shaped particles used in paints as TiO2 extender.
Calcium oxide (quicklime) is a pale-yellow to off-white product obtained by calcination of calcium carbonate (limestone) at high temperature. It is an odorless, caustic and alkaline solid of 3,3 g/cm3 specific gravity, being CaO its basic chemical formulation. The later grinding and screening process generates the different calcium oxide products from granular size to highly reactive ultra-micronized lime. Its principal properties depend on its chemical composition and the thermal treatment that the mineral has been subjected to, which determines its degree of reactivity.
Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is obtained through the calcium oxide hydration process. It is an off-white to white odorless powder with Ca(OH)2 chemical formulation, and specific gravity around 2,2 g/cm3.